Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is typically found in a latent, asymptomatic state in immunocompetent individuals. Perturbations of the host immune system can stimulate viral reactivation. Furthermore, there are a myriad of EBV-associated illnesses including various cancers, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, and autoimmune conditions. A thorough understanding of this virus, and the interplay between stress and the immune system, is essential to establish effective treatment. This review will provide a summary of the interaction between both psychological and cellular stressors resulting in EBV reactivation. It will examine mechanisms by which EBV establishes and maintains latency and will conclude with a brief overview of vaccines targeting EBV.